- HISTORICKÝ ÚSTAV AV ČR
- The Czech Historical Review
- Český časopis historický 2019/2
Český časopis historický 2019/2
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STUDIE | STUDIES
Hus a pražští konšelé v předvečer revoluce.
Staroměstské soudní knihy pro dluhy a možnosti jejich výpovědi pro dějiny města
(Hus and the Prague councillors on the eve of the revolution.
Old Town Judicial Books for Debts and the possibilities of their testimony for the history of the town)
The study focuses on an analysis of the Old Town Judicial Books for Debts from the 15th century (Libri judiciorum pro pecuniam, Prague City Archives /AMP/, Collection of Manuscripts /Sbírka rukopisů/, sign. 997 and 998), which are a source kept as a series, which allows an admittedly limited but immensely interesting insight into the power, social and economic life of the town. Through their data, they make it possible to specify further some of the existing inaccuracies in the composition of town councils, to supplement the persons holding the post of Old Town magistrate, or to extend the number of entries on burgher surrenders. By observing the burghers, who attended the sessions of the courts opened in 1407 through 1413, allows us, however, to capture more precisely in a limited way the power and nationality conflicts, which were taking place in the town in the period before the outbreak of the Hussite revolution (1419–1434). Their analysis proves that there really was a definitive victory of the Bohemian side in 1408, which was led by Johánek Ortlův /Johanco Ortlini/ and Čeněk the cloth cutter /Czenco pannicida/. It seems that Johánek with his adherents became the uncrowned ruler of the town in 1408 through 1413 as was later managed in the post-revolutionary period by the brothers Jan and Pešík from Kunvald and some other burghers. Hence, we can see already in pre-Hussite Prague the beginnings of breaking of the existing habits in the internal administration of the town and its domination by only one interest group of burghers with a strong leader at its head.
Keywords: Prague – Prague’s Old Town – Master Jan Hus – Hussitism – judicial books for debts – town council – burgomaster – councillor – Middle Ages
The Old Town Judicial Books for Debts from the 15th century (Libri judiciorum pro pecuniam, Prague City Archives /AMP/, Collection of Manuscripts /Sbírka rukopisů/, sign. 997 and 998) are a source kept as a series, which allows an admittedly limited but immensely interesting insight into the power, social and economic life of the town. Considering that other town judicial books from this period have not been preserved, it is truly a unique view. Through the data contained in them, they make it possible to specify further some of the existing inaccuracies in the composition of town councils, to supplement the persons holding the post of Old Town magistrate (judex), or to extend the number of entries on burgher surrenders. By observing the burghers, who attended the sessions of the courts opened in 1407 through 1413, allows us, however, to capture more precisely in a limited way the power and nationality competitions, which were taking place in the town in the period before the outbreak of the Hussite revolution (1419–1434). Their analysis proves that there really was a definitive victory of the Bohemian party in 1408, which was led by Johánek Ortlův and Čeněk the cloth cutter. It seems that Johánek with his adherents became the uncrowned ruler of the town in 1408 through 1413 as was later managed in the post-revolutionary period by the brothers Jan and Pešík of Kunvald or Samuel Velvar of Hrádek. Hence, we can see already in pre-Hussite Prague the beginnings of breaking of the existing habits in the internal administration of the town and its domination by only one interest group of burghers with a strong leader at its head.
The analytical probe into both of the municipal books also allowed the identification of the circle of Johánek’s adherents and supporters, which besides Čeněk included also Václav Cháně, Zikmund Beránek, František Kbelský, Jan Vlčíhrdlo, Vavřinec Reichlův, Ondřej Krajsa, Mareš Šrám and some other burghers. It is clear that all was done with the support of King Wenceslas IV, without which such a privileged position would be impossible to achieve. It is not possible to say precisely which town council had the three captured young men executed on Monday, 11 July 1412, but it is certain that predominantly the adherents of the Bohemian side did so. Even though more councillors with German names and thus more opponents of Hus’s teachings were elected to the council in 1412, the members of the Bohemian party had predominance in the council, but the opponents of the execution of the three young men could have been outvoted or deceived, as suggested by Jaroslav Mezník. That, however, does not change anything about the fact that at the important moment the main members of the Bohemian party preferred their own interests over their beliefs. The execution of Johánek Ortlův and Čeněk the cloth cutter did not take place on 2 November 1413 only because they were the main leaders of the Bohemian party, but also because their power had grown so much that it threatened the existing customs, town regulations and statutes. The Prague situation, the quite isolated act of the execution of two burghers set a serious precedent for the future history of the town, because until that time no burgher had been executed at the instigation of the town council. In future, no one could be sure of their life and the execution from 1413 to a certain extent foreshadowed an inauspicious development in Hussite Prague: opponents were either executed or expelled and usually their property was also confiscated.
Toleranční kazatelé z Uher v procesu formování české společnosti (1781–1870)
(Tolerance preachers from Hungary in the proces of the formation of Czech society /1781–1870/)
The topic of the study is the socio-professional group of Hungarian Protestant pastors of the Augsburg and Helvetic confessions “implanted” into the Czech milieu as a result of the reforms of Emperor Joseph II, in particular the Patent of Toleration. The aim is a comprehensive assessment of the social and economic status of pastors, through the comparison of three generational layers in the period 1781–1870 with the interdisciplinary use of a wide range of sources. The author investigates the phenomenon of “dual minority”, not only religious but social and cultural in the milieus of Bohemian non-Catholicism and the majority society with a new experience of the regime of religious toleration. This method is the prerequisite for capturing the specific nature of the group and its interaction with the majority society and the period state, including the process of cultural transfer.
Keywords: socio-professional group – Enlightenment intelligentsia – Protestantism – Patent of Toleration – toleration preachers
The presented conception of research into the activity of the socio-professional group of Hungarian toleration preachers in the Czech milieu and its subsequent application arises from a comparison of three generational layers into which the work of the toleration pastors can be divided. The boundaries of the individual layers include an entire specific toleration period with an overlap allowing the observance of the impact of the legal equalization of Protestant Churches. At the same time, it is possible to connect with key historical events that influenced the whole of society.
The first generational layer (1781–1815) is determined temporally by the Patent of Toleration and other Enlightenment or enlightened ideas inspired reforms on the one hand and then the Napoleonic Wars and their conclusion on the other hand. For the definition of the second (1815–1848) and third (1848– 1870) generational layers, the natural turning point is the revolutionary transformation of 1848. The topic investigated was influenced by the declaration of the Protestant Law by Francis Josepf I. (1861), around the enforcement of which the specifics of the (discriminated) toleration non-Catholic religious communities gradually disappear. However, it’s possible to observe further the echoes of a number of them, especially to the following milestone, the year 1918.
The research within the individual generational strata was concentrated around the dynamic process of the integration from two main connected perspectives, private integration (families) and public integration (careers). The networks of relationships and the characteristics of the social strategies of the minority group have not been neglected. It was a natural development that with each, further generational layer after the Patent of Toleration the Protestant preachers became more and more natives from the domestic communities of the faithful. The importance of the families of the originally Hungarian pastors similarly declined, as the specifics of the Hungarian heritage in these families waned in favour of full integration with the Czech milieu.
ZAPLETAL Jan – ZAPLETALOVÁ Markéta
Nové politické elity maloměst na přelomu 19. a 20. století
(New Political Elites in Small Towns at the Turn of the 20th Century)
Using a micro-analytical approach, this study attempts to capture some important aspects of the formation of new town elites in six Habsburg “agrarian-spiritual“ small towns from different parts of the vast Monarchy in the seemingly unconnected environments of Lower Austria (Eggenburg, Horn, Retz), South Tyrol (Brixen) and Eastern Moravia (Uherský Brod, Uherské Hradiště). We present the key moments which document the accentuation of qualitative changes at the societal, economic and political levels in the Monarchy’s small towns at the turn of the 20th century. We further introduce the starting points linked to the capabilities of the town elites to impact successfully upon and influence various policy levels for the benefit of a municipal sphere from which they themselves sprang.
Keywords: municipal elites – Habsburg small towns – local self-government – municipal infrastructure
New small town elites in the Habsburg Monarchy had a minor impact on the economico-political system. Yet, traditional families would, nevertheless, remain dominant economically and maintain their social role. They adapted egalitarian decision-making to their own economic interests and their contacts with the civic society were arranged through various associations, groups and unions, where they made excellent use of the mechanism of municipal elections. The final constant result is a nearly unchanging picture.
The course of the industrial revolution accompanied by the extraordinarily strong internal migration, brought with it new opportunities. Nearly all new elites in the towns under research are not born within those municipalities. They arrive there to carve out a career for themselves and immediately upon their arrival they become actively involved in political life. Their brilliant careers often culminate in the post of mayor, some even become members of the Land Diet or the Imperial Council.
The traditional municipal classes are well aware that the long-term „preservation” of the social structure is threatened and they are forced to confront new challenges. In small towns, the conservative classes attempt to bring into being specific social phenomena, which temporarily indicate the existence of a temporary social platform, resisting to political and economic transformation. Property ownership remains an important symbol of one’s membership of the local elites. In Moravian municipalities, the intelligentsia becomes involved in greater numbers once the Czech parties come to dominate the self-government in the 1890s; though in the Lower Austrian towns and South Tyrolean Brixen this has already happened twenty years earlier. These new elites de-facto merged with the traditional notables.
The development of the elites in individual small towns was influenced by the economic situation as a whole, therefore it is necessary to continue to trace the property structure of the entire municipal population as the exclusivity of the elite group can only come to prominence in this way.
The municipal elites can be considered to be the true creators of some changes in the system, as from their position and within the scope of their own power, they also accentuated changes in the economic decision-making. Through their investments and accompanying synergic effects, the elites guaranteed for themselves a long-term political influence, which, especially in the Moravian towns, served to the strengthening of newly arrived Czech self-governing bodies.
The rise of the intellectual classes’ involvement shows, on the one side, that modern processes and changes demonstrably occurred in small towns. On the other hand these groups, respectively individuals, merely „retuned“ the invevitable transformation of small towns from being administrative centres with strong ties to their agricultural background in a state of retardation to a modernizing municipal society.
Dialog archivistiky a historické vědy. Prameny a role archivů
(The dialogue of archival and historical sciences: Sources and the role of archives)
The study intends to build on the one hand on the methodology of historical science and on the other hand archival science, namely in the specific area of the so-called archival appraisal of records, or historical sources. After we focus in the first step on the recently deceased Canadian archival thinker and theoretician Terry Cook (1947–2014) and the theory he elaborated of the appraisal/selection of records called the macroappraisal theory, the author will in the second part systematize several levels on which the future potential importance of the historical sources will be constituted and from which it is also possible to interpret. The study concludes with the author’s proposed conception of the so-called “archival hermeneutic circle” as one of the outcomes of reflections on the relationship between historical and archival science.
Keywords: methodology of history – historical sources – archival appraisal – archival theory – archival science – Terry Cook – macroappraisal theory – archival hermeneutic circle
The study intends to build on the one hand on the methodology of historical science and on the other hand archival science, namely in the specific area of socalled archival appraisal of records, or the constitution of historical sources. The key starting point is the premise that a document (a potential historical source) is never in and of itself, that its meaning is always constituted within a broader context and very diverse and often complex and general contexts.
In the first part, the study focuses first on a view of the recently deceased Canadian archival thinker and theoretician Terry Cook (1947–2014) and the theory he elaborated of the appraisal (evaluation/selection) of documents called the macroappraisal theory. Within the framework of the theory of macroappraisal, Cook wants to move away from the concentration on the factual content of the materiál and shift the focus of attention to the functions, activities, programmes, etc. of the institution, organization, office, in archival terminology the so-called creator, who fashioned the records. These functions and activities of the creator must then be placed and viewed in a broad-based perspective of their origin, in the political, social, cultural, etc. context, and on the basis of this context, set the value of the mentioned functions, activities, actions of the institutions as well as the value of the records creators themselves. Whereas Cook interprets his approach as a renewal of the sense of provenance, this basic and initial principle, upon which the entire archival field stands, the study submitted endeavours to show that Cook’s theory of macroappraisal means much more. The main shift lies in that provenance no longer means the organization of the creator, its structure and the arrangement selected by it for the records and provenance does not even mean the schematic structure of its activities and agendas. Provenance are rather significant functions of the given creator, who fulfils (these functions) in society, and the contextuality of these functions.
In the second part of the study, it continues to a systematization of several levels, from which and in which it is possible to understand the record and future historical source, or in its framework their potential importance is formed, where the theory of macroappraisal represents only one of the possible levels here. While on the notional lowest level, records are evaluated only within the context of the creator’s organization, on a higher level, the record is assessed with regard to its inclusion and understanding in relation to its related organizations and authorities (see for example the so-called “Vertical and horizontal archival appraisal methodology in Germany”), for instance generally the government, within the superiors, subordinates and on the same level of the placed entities. The theory of macroappraisal judges the document in a still broader and more complex context, when it considers the society-wide context, on the basis of which the functions, activities, actions and programmes of the given organization and the records creators are evaluated. On the notional highest level, there is then the context of the historical period in its entirety. On this level, the archivist should assess whether the given record and potential historical source testifies in an illustrative and condensed way the time of its origin, whether it points to important tendencies and characteristics in the given time in history. In order to systematize these levels, the methodology of historical science will also be taken into account, where a special emphasis will be placed at a certain moment on the specific historiographic direction of the intellectual history (in German-speaking countries called Geistesgeschichte) and their peculiar conception of historical reality. Among other things, using their example, the study will try to show how the methodology of historical science and the advancement in the area of historiography can become one of the good sources of inspiration for the theory of archival appraisal, especially in the area of extending possible contextual levels in which and from which the record can be understood and interpreted.
The author concludes the study with the proposed concept of the so-called “archival hermeneutic circle” as one of the outcomes of the consideration of the relationship of historical and archival science. On the one hand, the future is always dependent on the past, because it will only have the archival materials available that its “past” archivists have selected for it, and the past period placed in the corpus of canonized historical sources. However, on the other hand, these actually “past” archivists are substantially tied to the future in the constitution of the source legacy and archival appraisal and selection of the records, namely in that they always transfer to the future at the moment of the decision what they will preserve permanently for precisely the needs of future generations, which part of the immense whole of documentary production they will permanently conserve and what they send to be destroyed, because their decision develops very often or perhaps usually – naturally always only hypothetically – from the answer: What might the future period have interest in from the archival legacy of the past? The archivist is actually a kind of seer turned to the future and looking back from then not only to its present, but even further into the past. S(he) tries to predict what future time will be interested in, including its historical science. It is actually the present looking to the future and from it returning not only to the present but even further to its past.
The future, including future historical science, will inevitably be forced on its way to understanding the past to look at the past through a filter that has been placed in particular by archives on the whole of the emerging materials and potential historical sources during an utterly radical destruction of documentary wealth in the process of archival selection / appraisal.
The specific form of open historicity also grows from this. Its openness is based on the presence of our monitored specific situation of the constitution of the source material connected substantially to the past being able to and having to ask the question of the future time, although with only hypothetical answers, that the presence in this direction is to open not only the past from which a certain minimal part of for permanent preservation is selected, but that it should maintain a lively relationship of questioning and dialogue with the future.
The study considers the specific phenomenon of the process of the constitution of the historical sources in order to show that the sources did not merely “fall from the sky” for historians. That there are certain appraisals, selections and assessments behind them and again a certain background behind them, which conditioned the approach of the archivists and their roles in the process of constituting the historical sources. That the appraisal of the records itself already testifies in a way about the time of their selection and preservation and the various contexts in which they were created and in which they were also appraised and evaluated, the absolute majority of them irreversibly destroyed, and their very small fraction ultimately intended for permanent preservation in archives and thus, as an archival court, judged to be material worthy of becoming a historical source.
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